Communicable Disease Surveillance
The Communicable Disease (CD) Surveillance Program investigates reports of infectious diseases in Macomb County residents to monitor the health of the community. The program relies on timely mandated reporting of both diagnosed and suspected communicable diseases by physicians, health care providers, and laboratories. Prompt notification protects individuals and the community by providing a link to these important program activities:
- Identify outbreaks and epidemics to initiate investigation and implementation of measures to control the spread of disease.
- Enable preventive treatment and/or provide education on disease transmission and prevention
- Identify needs, target prevention programs, and evaluate prevention and control efforts.
Communicable disease reporting is expressly allowed under HIPAA and required by Michigan Public Act 368 of 1978, 333.5111
- Guide for Physicians, Health Care Providers and Laboratories: List of Reportable Diseases in Michigan
- Health Care Professional’s Guide to Disease Reporting in Michigan: Summary of the Michigan Communicable Disease Rules
Laboratories, hospitals, nursing homes or physicians who need to report a disease should
- call the CD Program at (586) 783-8190 between 8:30 a.m. and 5:00 p.m.,
- or FAX report to (586) 493-0075.
School and Childcare Weekly Disease Reporting
The Weekly School and Childcare Communicable Disease Reporting System is an important way for the Macomb County Health Department to monitor and prevent outbreaks of disease in our schools and child care centers. Disease prevention and control efforts depend on each facility's participation in the reporting process; continued commitment to complete reporting will assist public health in controlling communicable diseases in the community.
Reporting is also mandated according to Public Act 368, of 1978 as amended and referenced by the Michigan School Building Weekly Report of Communicable Disease to Local Health Department Form.
How to Report: The Macomb County Health Department implemented an online reporting system to replace the paper reporting system for weekly communicable disease reporting. The program no longer accepts paper reports.
Instructions: Please review the two-page weekly communicable disease online reporting instructions here.
Reporting Link: To submit the Weekly School and Childcare Report, please click here.
For additional information or questions, please contact the Communicable Disease program at 586-783-8190.
Rabies/Animal Bites/Bat Exposure
Report all animal bites to the Macomb County Animal Control using this updated FORM. Fax the form to 586-783-0906 within 24 hours. The Animal Shelter will inform the Health Department of all reported bites. Please report any exposure to BATS or oddly behaving racoons, skunks, or other wildlife to the Macomb County Health Department at 586-783-8190.
A CD Nurse will follow-up on animal bites and exposures to determine risk for rabies, and the potential need for rabies post-exposure vaccinations. Click this link to learn more about RABIES.
Communicable Disease Data
The CD Program compiles the Reportable Diseases Summary Report for each year and monthly year-to-date data.
Reportable Diseases Summary: 2015-2019 June year-to-date.
Other reports are available on the Communicable Disease Information section found here.
Communicable Disease Fact Sheets (PDF)
Haemophilus Influenza Type B (Hib)
Legionellosis (Legionnaires' Disease)
Pertussis (Whooping Cough)
Viral (Aseptic) Meningitis
Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome - Coronavirus (MERS-CoV)
communicable disease highlights
Legionellosis (Legionnaires' disease and Pontiac Fever)
Michigan is experiencing an increase in legionellosis cases. Legionnaires’ disease is a serious type of pneumonia (lung infection) caused by Legionella bacteria. Legionella can also cause a milder illness called Pontiac fever. People can get sick when they breathe in a mist or accidentally swallow water into the lungs containing Legionella. Legionellosis is most common in the summer and early fall when warming, stagnant waters are ideal for bacterial growth in water systems.
For more information on Legionnaires’ disease risk and prevention:
- Legionnaires' disease fact sheet
- visit the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website.
Acute Flaccid Myelitis (AFM)
Acute flaccid myelitis is a rare but serious condition emerging across the country since 2014. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, state and local health departments are thoroughly investigating reports of AFM cases.
For the most current information, visit CDC - AFM Investigation.
Insect-Related Illness Prevention
MOSQUITOES: Mosquito bites are mostly a nuisance. Unfortunately, they can also cause serious illness or death when the mosquito carries a disease. In Macomb County, mosquitoes carry the risk of West Nile Disease.
Travellers to tropical or semi-tropical areas are also at risk for dengue, malaria, yellow fever, chikungunya and zika, all transmitted by the bite of infected mosquitoes. For destination-specific information, visit the Macomb County Travel page.
PROTECT YOURSELF: Use insect repellent that contains DEET, Picaridin, oil of lemon eucalyptus, or IR3535; wear long sleeves and pants when possible, maintain window screens in good condition and eliminate standing water around your home, and use bed netting if the location warrants it, and in malarial areas take prophylaxis before, during, and after your trip.
If you become ill after travelling, see your doctor and tell them where you travelled.
TICKS: Ticks are known to carry many diseases such as Lyme Disease, Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, babesiosis, anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis, and more. A person may experience severe symptoms soon after a bite, to significant problems years later if left untreated. For more information, click here.
PROTECT YOURSELF: Use insect repellent that contains DEET, Picaridin, oil of lemon eucalyptus, or IR3535; wear long sleeves and pants when possible, stay away from brush/leafy areas and stay in the middle of the trail when hiking. When you get back, inspect yourself and your equipment, remove any ticks immediately, and shower to wash off any unattached ticks.
If you experience any of the following symptoms, especially if you found an attached tick(s) to your body, see your doctor and tell them about the tick:
- Muscle ache
- Fatigue (feeling very tired)
Zika virus is spread to people through mosquito bites. Zika virus is found in tropical areas worldwide, and since 2015 in South and Central America, Mexico and the Caribbean (including Puerto Rico), and in travellers returning to the U.S.
This virus can be dangerous to pregnant women, and they should avoid or postpone travel to affected areas.
Protect yourself by using insect repellent and wearing long-sleeve shirts and pants. If you get sick after travelling see your doctor and tell them where you have travelled.
For more information, visit: CDC- Zika Virus.
Seasonal Influenza (flu)
The seasonal flu vaccine is available in our clinics. It is recommended that all persons age 6 months and older receive a yearly flu vaccination. Immunization clinic hours vary by location. For more information about the disease, visit the Influenza page.
Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Information
Pertussis is a respiratory illness that starts out very similar to the common cold (runny nose, sneezing, coughing) but progresses to include severe coughing. Infants and young children cough so forcefully, they are forced to inhale with a "whooping sound." The best way to prevent pertussis is to get vaccinated and to get infants and young children vaccinated on time. Adults and teens need a booster, especially if they are around infants and young children. Over the last several years, there has been a spike in pertussis cases, and infants and young children are most likely to be hospitalized with complications from pertussis. For more information on pertussis, visit the links listed below.
MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) Information
The following links will provide up-to-date information on MRSA. If you have additional questions, please contact us.
Avian Influenza is a viral disease that can affect all bird species and is generally carried by waterfowl (ducks, geese, etc.) that usually do not become ill. Poultry (chicken, turkey) however, may become very ill and/or die from the "highly pathogenic" types.
Human infections with avian influenza are rare and are more likely to happen when a person has close contact with sick or dead birds. If you see several sick or dead waterfowl contact the Michigan Department of Natural Resources at 517-336-5030. If you have sick or dead poultry, contact the Michigan Department of Agriculture and Rural Development (MDARD) at 800-292-3939.